Year 2024
Autori Nutter S , Saunders JF , Waugh R - More
Giornale Journal of eating disorders
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BACKGROUND: Since the first papers focused on internalized weight stigma were published in the mid 2000's, the literature has grown into a robust field that complements existing knowledge on weight stigma. Recently, researchers have documented the need for increased conceptual and measurement clarity, to distinguish internalized weight stigma from body dissatisfaction. Although several systematic reviews have been conducted on portions of the internalized weight stigma literature, no review to date has been conducted examining the entirety of the literature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to conduct a systematic scoping review and synthesis of research on internalized weight stigma. Specifically, we sought to examine the broad scope of the literature, terms used to refer to internalized weight stigma, how internalized weight stigma is defined, sample characteristics, and weight-based framings of internalized weight stigma research. METHODS: We conducted a single-concept search across six databases (EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO, PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science) of peer-reviewed papers published in English on internalized weight stigma. Data were extracted for article authors, year published, journal name and type, general article topic(s), study design, study location, sample characteristics, variables measured, paper framing, term used to describe internalized weight stigma, and definition of internalized weight stigma. RESULTS: Of the 931 unique records screened, 376 were identified for inclusion in the scoping review. The majority of internalized weight stigma research is characterized by cross-sectional methods, has been conducted in the US, and has utilized samples of higher weight white women. Further, 40 unique terms were used across the literature to refer to internalized weight stigma, and 19 different components of definitions of internalized weight stigma were identified. The literature is also characterized by a focus on understanding the association between internalized weight stigma and health outcomes with an emphasis on obesity. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review confirms a lack of concept clarity of internalized weight stigma, in part influenced by an inconsistency in definitions of internalized weight stigma across the literature. Considerations are provided for steps to enhance conceptual and measurement clarity. Given the obesity focused framing of much of the research on internalized weight stigma, considerations are also provided for reducing weight-centric approaches to research. In the early 2000's, researchers began to pay more attention to the potential health impacts of believing societal stereotypes, negative attitudes, and beliefs about higher weight people. When these stereotypes, negative attitudes, and beliefs are directed towards the self, it can have significant consequences for an individual's perceptions of self. This research collected and summarized all existing research published in English on internalized weight stigma. Our results highlighted that researchers do not use consistent terminology to refer to internalized weight stigma and that they do not have a consistent definition of internalized weight stigma. Further, a large proportion of the research is focused on obesity or weight loss, which may unintentionally perpetuate weight stigma in scientific research. We provide several recommendations for researchers to address these challenges in future research on internalized weight stigma as well as recommendations to address other identified gaps in the existing literature.

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Year 2024
Autori Shirdel E , Asadisarvestani K , Kargar FH - More
Giornale BMC public health
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OBJECTIVE: Given Iran's recent shift towards pronatalist population policies, concerns have arisen regarding the potential increase in abortion rates. This review study examines the trends of (medical), intentional (illegal), and spontaneous abortions in Iran over the past two decades, as well as the factors that have contributed to these trends. METHODS: This paper reviewed research articles published between 2005 and 2022 on abortion in Iran. The study employed the PRISMA checklist for systematic reviews. Articles were searched from international (Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) and national databases (Magiran, Medlib, SID). Once the eligibility criteria were applied, 42 records were included from the initial 349 records. RESULTS: Abortion is influenced by a variety of socioeconomic and cultural factors and the availability of family planning services. Factors that contribute to unintended pregnancy include attitudes toward abortion, knowledge about reproductive health, access to reproductive health services, and fertility desires, among others. In addition to health and medical factors, consanguineous marriage plays an important role in spontaneous and therapeutic abortion. A higher number of illegal abortions were reported by women from more privileged socioeconomic classes. In comparison, a higher number of medical and spontaneous abortions were reported by women from less privileged socioeconomic classes. CONCLUSION: Iranian policymakers are concerned about the declining fertility rate and have turned to pronatalist policies. From a demographic standpoint, this seems to be a reasonable approach. However, the new population policies, particularly, the Family Protection and Young Population Law, along with creating limitations in access to reproductive health services and prenatal screening tests as well as stricter abortion law could potentially lead to an increase in various types of abortions and their associated consequences.

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Year 2024
Giornale Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
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BACKGROUND: High interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels have been linked to poor prognosis in lung cancer, but conclusive data are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted on April 1st, 2023, from electronic databases, focusing on studies with IL-8 expression evaluations and the availability of hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) or adequate data for their estimation. Then, we examined IL-8 and CXCR1 RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, and we correlated these data with OS. RESULTS: Among 2655 produced records, 10 manuscripts involving both non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer, were included in the analysis. Two manuscripts and one study included two and three different cohorts, respectively, for a total of 14 cohorts of patients. Overall, 4 cohorts evaluated IL-8 levels in patients treated with chemotherapy, 3 cohorts immunotherapy, 2 cohorts surgical patients and 4 cohorts other treatments; 1 cohort was removed, as the type of treatments was lacking. The 12 cohorts included in the OS analysis revealed that patients with high IL-8 levels have a lower OS probability, as compared to patients with low IL-8 levels (HR=1.75, 95 % CI 1.36-2.26). No significant difference between patients with high and low IL-8 levels was observed in the 8 cohorts available for PFS analysis. Sensitivity analysis according to treatment revealed significant PFS and OS differences for patients treated with chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Analysis of RNA-seq data from TCGA, confirmed the correlation between high IL-8 and CXCR1 expression and worse OS in patients with resected lung cancer. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first meta-analysis demonstrating a negative prognostic impact of high IL-8 level in lung cancer, particularly in patients treated with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy.

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Year 2024
Autori Brouwers, Tamara - More
Registry of Trials ISRCTN registry
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Year 2024
Autori Thet MS , D'Oria M , Sef D , Klokocovnik T , Oo AY , Lepidi S - More
Giornale Annals of vascular surgery
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INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) is a potentially devastating complication of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and fenestrated-branched endovascular aortic repair (F-BEVAR). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of neuromonitoring modalities to mitigate the risk of SCI during TEVAR and F-BEVAR procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following the PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a detailed literature search of databases including PubMed, MEDLINE via Ovid, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane CENTRAL, from 1998 to the present. Inclusion criteria were original research articles examining neuromonitoring during TEVAR and F-BEVAR. The primary outcome was the incidence of SCI, while the secondary outcome included early mortality. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: From 1,450 identified articles, 11 met inclusion criteria, encompassing data from 1,069 patients. Neuromonitoring modalities included motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The combination of MEPs and SSEPs was most commonly used, with 93% sensitivity and 96% specificity for detecting SCI risks. SCI incidence ranged from 3.8-17.3%, with permanent deficits occurring in 2.7-5.8% of cases. In-hospital mortality ranged from 0.4-8%. Risk factors for SCI were identified, including operation duration and extent of aortic coverage. CONCLUSION: Neuromonitoring with MEPs and SSEPs appears to be effective in detecting perioperative SCI risk during TEVAR and F-BEVAR. However, discrepancies between neuromonitoring changes and actual SCI outcomes suggest the need for cautious interpretation. While the incidence of SCI remains variable, identified risk factors may guide clinical decisions, particularly in high-risk procedures. Future research should focus on prospective studies and randomized controlled trials to validate these findings and improve SCI prevention strategies in TEVAR and F-BEVAR.

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Year 2024
Giornale Implementation science : IS
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BACKGROUND: There are no criteria specifically for evaluating the quality of implementation research and recommending implementation strategies likely to have impact to practitioners. We describe the development and application of the Best Practices Tool, a set of criteria to evaluate the evidence supporting HIV-specific implementation strategies. METHODS: We developed the Best Practices Tool from 2022-2023 in three phases. (1) We developed a draft tool and criteria based on a literature review and key informant interviews. We purposively selected and recruited by email interview participants representing a mix of expertise in HIV service delivery, quality improvement, and implementation science. (2) The tool was then informed and revised through two e-Delphi rounds using a survey delivered online through Qualtrics. The first and second round Delphi surveys consisted of 71 and 52 open and close-ended questions, respectively, asking participants to evaluate, confirm, and make suggestions on different aspects of the rubric. After each survey round, data were analyzed and synthesized as appropriate; and the tool and criteria were revised. (3) We then applied the tool to a set of research studies assessing implementation strategies designed to promote the adoption and uptake of evidence-based HIV interventions to assess reliable application of the tool and criteria. RESULTS: Our initial literature review yielded existing tools for evaluating intervention-level evidence. For a strategy-level tool, additions emerged from interviews, for example, a need to consider the context and specification of strategies. Revisions were made after both Delphi rounds resulting in the confirmation of five evaluation domains - research design, implementation outcomes, limitations and rigor, strategy specification, and equity - and four evidence levels - best, promising, more evidence needed, and harmful. For most domains, criteria were specified at each evidence level. After an initial pilot round to develop an application process and provide training, we achieved 98% reliability when applying the criteria to 18 implementation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a tool to evaluate the evidence supporting implementation strategies for HIV services. Although specific to HIV in the US, this tool is adaptable for evaluating strategies in other health areas.

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Year 2024
Autori Nejadi Orang F , Abdoli Shadbad M - More
Giornale Cancer cell international
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BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is one of the common primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies in pediatric patients. The main treatment is surgical resection preceded and/or followed by chemoradiotherapy. However, their serious side effects necessitate a better understanding of medulloblastoma biology to develop novel therapeutic options. MAIN BODY: Circular RNA (circRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) regulate gene expression via microRNA (miRNA) pathways. Although growing evidence has highlighted the significance of circRNA and lncRNA-associated competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks in cancers, no study has comprehensively investigated them in medulloblastoma. For this aim, the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were systematically searched to obtain the relevant papers published before 16 September 2023, adhering to the PRISMA-ScR statement. HOTAIR, NEAT1, linc-NeD125, HHIP-AS1, CRNDE, and TP73-AS1 are the oncogenic lncRNAs, and Nkx2-2as is a tumor-suppressive lncRNA that develop lncRNA-associated ceRNA networks in medulloblastoma. CircSKA3 and circRNA_103128 are upregulated oncogenic circRNAs that develop circRNA-associated ceRNA networks in medulloblastoma. CONCLUSION: In summary, this study has provided an overview of the existing evidence on circRNA and lncRNA-associated ceRNA networks and their impact on miRNA and mRNA expression involved in various signaling pathways of medulloblastoma. Suppressing the oncogenic ceRNA networks and augmenting tumor-suppressive ceRNA networks can provide ample opportunities for medulloblastoma treatment.

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Year 2024
Autori Hahn H , Friedel M , Niessner C , Zipfel S , Mack I - More
Giornale The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity
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BACKGROUND: Physical activity is widely promoted to maintain and improve health across all ages. Investigating how physical activity affects subsequent food intake provides insight into the factors that contribute to maintaining energy balance and effective weight management. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes the evidence on the effect of acute physical activity on subsequent food intake in children and adolescents. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA) were applied. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) objectively measuring post-exercise energy intake in children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years were included. Studies with self-reported food intake were excluded. The databases PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTs, and the data were summarized at a qualitative and quantitative level. Version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials was used to assess risk of bias. Changes in energy intake were examined with random effects meta-analysis. (PROSPERO: CRD42022324259). RESULTS: Out of 9582 studies, 22 RCTs with cross-over design remained eligible for meta-analysis. The primary outcome was post-intervention energy intake up to the next 24 h. Heterogeneity of studies was moderate, with an I2 of 57%. The median (interquartile range, IQR) energy expended while exercising was 240 (158) kcal. Meta-analysis of 41 study arms (exercise n = 780 and control n = 478) showed no differences in total energy intake between the exercise and control group with a mean difference MD = 23.31 [-27.54, 74.15] kcal. No subgroup differences were found. Macronutrient intake and appetite sensations where not substantially affected. CONCLUSION: Engaging in exercise is a suitable means of raising activity-induced energy expenditure, without causing any noticeable changes in food intake or hunger within a single day.

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Year 2024
Autori Chen YT , Wang ZC , Xie YM , Wang X , Huang J , Wang J - More
Giornale Asian journal of surgery
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Stapled hemorrhoidopexy has been used for years to treat hemorrhoids. Despite numerous systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the topic, inconsistent conclusions have left people uncertain about its effectiveness and raised doubts about the quality of these reviews.In order to provide reliable evidence for clinical practice, it is crucial to conduct an overview to assess the quality of MAs/SRs regarding the efficacy and complications of SH.A comprehensive search was performed across seven databases to identify MAs/SRs on the efficacy and complications of SH from inception to October 2023. The selected MAs/SRs were then assessed using three well-established tools: AMSTAR-2, PRISMA 2020and GRADE. These assessments provide a robust evaluation of the quality and reliability of the included MAs/SRs.We removed overlapping randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and conducted a new meta-analysis of the outcomes. The overview included 23 meta-analyses.In AMSTAR-2, three reviews were deemed moderate quality, nine reviews were classified as low quality, and eleven reviews were evaluated as critically low quality.In PRISMA 2020,certain deficiencies were exhibited, such as abstracts (0/23:0 %),final retrieval date (0/23:0 %), sensitivity analysis (6/23:26.09 %),publication bias assessment (11/23:47.83 %), the quality of evidence (2/23:8.70 %) and so on.In GRADE,twenty-six items were rated as moderate quality (27.96 %),forty-one items were rated as low quality (44.09 %) and twenty-six items were rated as critically low quality (27.96 %).SH has been found to be an effective intervention for reducing postoperative pain, shortening procedure time, and promoting wound healing. The re-analysis indicated that SH can reduce postoperative pain in hemorrhoid patients (odds ratio = 0.28, 95 % confidence interval [0.15,0.55], p = 0.0002; I2 = 74 %, p < 0.00001). But SH is associated with a higher risk of postoperative bleeding and recurrence of prolapse.Given that the reviews included in this overview were rated as low quality, caution should be exercised when interpreting the findings.

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Year 2024
Giornale European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
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PURPOSE: Cervical total disc replacement (cTDR) has been established as an alternative treatment for degenerative cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy. While the rate of complications for cTDR is reasonably low, recent studies have focused on bone loss after cTDR. The purpose of this work is to develop a clinical management plan for cTDR patients with evidence of bone loss. To guide our recommendations, we undertook a review of the literature and aimed to determine: (1) how bone loss was identified/imaged, (2) whether pre- or intraoperative assessments of infection or histology were performed, and (3) what decision-making and revision strategies were employed. METHODS: We performed a search of the literature according to PRISMA guidelines. Included studies reported the clinical performance of cTDR and identified instances of cervical bone loss. RESULTS: Eleven case studies and 20 cohort studies were reviewed, representing 2073 patients with 821 reported cases of bone loss. Bone loss was typically identified on radiographs during routine follow-up or by computed tomography (CT) for patients presenting with symptoms. Assessments of infection as well as histological and/or explant assessment were sporadically reported. Across all reviewed studies, multiple mechanisms of bone loss were suspected, and severity and progression varied greatly. Many patients were reportedly asymptomatic, but others experienced symptoms like progressive pain and paresthesia. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate a critical gap in the literature regarding the optimal management of patients with bone loss following cTDR, and treatment recommendations based on our review are impractical given the limited amount and quality evidence available. However, based on the authors' extensive clinical experience, close follow-up of specific radiographic observations and serial radiographs to assess the progression/severity of bone loss and implant changes are recommended. CT findings can be used for clinical decision-making and further follow-up care. The pattern and rate of progression of bone loss, in concert with patient symptomatology, should determine whether non-operative or surgical intervention is indicated. Future studies involving implant retrieval, histopathological, and microbiological analysis for patients undergoing cTDR revision for bone loss are needed.

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