Year 1990
Autori Geller G , Faden RR , Levine DM - More
Giornale Social science & medicine (1982)
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The practice of medicine has always been characterized by uncertainty. Yet, attempts to study tolerance for uncertainty in medicine have been few, and limited to its influence on specialty preferences and test-ordering behavior. In particular, studies have not investigated how the process of socialization into the medical profession affects tolerance for uncertainty. Based on the assumption that uncertainty and ambiguity are related concepts, a modified version of a tolerance for ambiguity scale was used to study Johns Hopkins medical students' (N = 386) tolerance for ambiguity (TFA) through 4 yr of medical school. In addition, using alcoholism as an example of a clinically ambiguous condition, the association between students' tolerance for ambiguity and their perceived role in diagnosing and treating alcoholism was also investigated. Results indicate that tolerance for ambiguity (1) does not change throughout medical school, (2) is lower among men, whites and students who are younger when they begin medical school, (3) is higher among prospective psychiatrists than surgeons, and (4) is lower among students who do not feel responsible for diagnosing and treating alcoholism. These findings suggest that tolerance for ambiguity may, indeed, affect practitioners' career choices and performance and that selection of medical students may be more important than medical training per se in influencing students' tolerance for ambiguity. If medical schools admitted students who possess a high tolerance for ambiguity, quality of care for ambiguous conditions might improve, imbalances in physician supply and practice patterns might be reduced, and the increasing ambiguity in medical practice might be better acknowledge and accepted.

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Year 1989
Autori DeForge BR , Sobal J - More
Giornale Social science & medicine (1982)
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Intolerance of ambiguity is the perception of ambiguous situations as a threat. Medical students with differing levels of intolerance of ambiguity may select medical specialties based upon the amount of ambiguity existing in the practice of each specialty. A cross-sectional survey at one state university administered Budner's Intolerance of Ambiguity Scale to all entering first-year medical students for four consecutive years (N = 609) to investigate patterns of intolerance of ambiguity in relationship with demographic variables and initial medical specialty preference. The medical students in this study were more intolerant of ambiguity than those first studied by Budner in 1962. Students entering in 1985 were slightly more intolerant of ambiguity than students in 1988. Students age 23 and older were less intolerant of ambiguity than students 18-22 years old. Men and students with natural/physical science undergraduate majors were more intolerant of ambiguity than their counterparts. However, medical specialty preference was not related to intolerance of ambiguity. Intolerance of ambiguity may be a personality trait or a learned characteristic, and needs further investigation.

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Year 2012
Giornale Family medicine
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tolerance of uncertainty is an important skill among general practitioners (GPs). Our aim was to study fifth-year medical students' feelings related to facing uncertainty and fears of making mistakes in medical decisions. Further, we studied the associations of intolerance of uncertainty with demographic factors, the students' fears of making mistakes, and their views of a GP's work prior to their ultimate course in general practice. METHODS: A questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the fifth-year medical students prior to their main course in general practice at the University of Helsinki. The questionnaire included demographic variables and inquired about their views of their own tolerance of uncertainty, fear of making mistakes, and of a GP's work overall. RESULTS: During the years 2008--2010, 307/359 medical students (mean age 25.7 years, 64% females) responded. Of the respondents, 22% felt they had difficulty tolerating uncertainty when making medical decisions. Females reported that they tolerated uncertainty poorly more often (27%) than did males (11%). Those tolerating uncertainty more poorly were more often afraid of making mistakes (100% versus 86%). This group more often considered a GP's work too difficult and challenging than did others. CONCLUSIONS: Poor self-reported tolerance of uncertainty among medical students is associated with considering a GP's work too challenging.

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Year 2000
Autori Schor R , Pilpel D , Benbassat J - More
Giornale Medical care
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BACKGROUND: Tolerance of uncertainty is believed to be an important attribute of practicing physicians. This study attempts to (1) estimate how medical students perceive physicians' tolerance of uncertainty and (2) measure the tolerance of uncertainty of practicing physicians. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Medical students (n = 113) and practicing physicians (n = 151) at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Israel. MEASURES: A self-administered, Hebrew version of an instrument developed in the United States. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Age, gender, seniority (year of study for students or years in practice for physicians), country of birth for students or of graduation for physicians, and physicians' specialty. DEPENDENT VARIABLES: Two dimensions, which were identified by factor analysis: reluctance to disclose uncertainty and stress from uncertainty. RESULTS: The estimates of physicians' stress from uncertainty by first-year students aged <22 years were higher than those by first-year students aged > or =22 years. There were no significant differences in the way junior and senior medical students perceived physicians' tolerance of uncertainty. Stress from uncertainty was higher in female physicians (P = 0.028) and in graduates of the former Soviet Union (P = 0.044) than among male physicians and Israeli graduates, respectively. Reluctance to disclose uncertainty was higher among graduates of the former Soviet Union (P = 0.003) and among psychiatrists (P = 0.021) than among Israeli graduates and other specialties, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The reliability and factor structure of the instrument were replicated. The previously reported differences in tolerance of uncertainty between women and men and between local and foreign graduates were confirmed. Physicians' tolerance of uncertainty appeared to be higher than that attributed to them by students. The expected age-related differences in perception of clinical uncertainty were not detected between junior and senior medical students.

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Year 2024
Autori Zhang M , Ling Z , Zhang W , Huang Q - More
Giornale Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses have systematically assessed the therapeutic effect of continuous blood purification (CBP) in adult patients with sepsis. Considering infection etiology and host response of sepsis is different in children, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CBP in children with sepsis. METHODS: Studies were searched from the Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, and VIP databases. Outcomes included vital signs, coagulation markers, organ function markers, immune markers, inflammatory markers, and prognostic markers. Heterogeneity was evaluated by the I-square statistic (I2), and sensitivity analysis was performed. RESULTS: 24 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that CBP decreased levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -44.867, 95%CI: -64.809 to -24.926), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (WMD = -55.373, 95%CI: -73.286 to -37.460), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (WMD = -2.581, 95%CI: -4.539 to -0.622), and serum creatinine (Scr) (WMD = -11.567, 95%CI: -19.509 to -3.625). The percentage of CD3+ cells (WMD = 8.242, 95%CI: 3.339 to 13.144) and CD4+ cells (WMD = 4.278, 95%CI: 3.252 to 5.303, I2 = 3.1%) were increased in the CBP group. C-reaction protein (CRP) (WMD = -20.699, 95%CI: -34.740 to -6.657) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (WMD = -19.185, 95%CI: -34.133 to -4.237) were reduced after CBP treatment. Pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) was increased (WMD = 7.916, 95%CI: 4.317 to 11.516) and the risk of 28-day mortality (risk ratio [RR] = 0.781, 95%CI: 0.632 to 0.965) was lower in the CBP group. CONCLUSIONS: CBP reduced the level of inflammatory markers, increased the level of immune markers, and improved organ function and prognosis, which may provide evidence for the use of CBP in sepsis children patients.

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Year 2024
Giornale American journal of ophthalmology
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PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review to assess drug exposure handling in diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk prediction models, a network-meta-analysis to identify drugs associated with DR and a meta-analysis to determine which drugs contributed to enhanced model performance. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We included studies presenting DR models incorporating drug exposure as a predictor. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE and SCOPUS from inception to December 2023. We evaluated the quality of studies using the Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool and certainty using GRADE. We conducted network meta-analysis and meta-analysis to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and pooled C-statistic, respectively, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) (PROSPERO: CRD42022349764). RESULTS: Of 5,653 records identified, we included 28 studies of 678,837 type 1 or 2 diabetes participants, of which 38,579 (5.7%) had DR. A total of 19, 3 and 7 studies were at high, unclear, and low risk of bias, respectively. Drugs included in models as predictors were: insulin (n=24), antihypertensives (n=5), oral antidiabetics (n=12), lipid-lowering drugs (n=7), antiplatelets (n=2). Drug exposure was modelled primarily as a categorical variable (n=23 studies). Two studies handled drug exposure as time-varying covariates, and one as a time-dependent covariate. Insulin was associated with an increased risk of DR (OR= 2.50; 95%-CI: 1.61-3.86). Models that included insulin (n=9) had a higher pooled C-statistic (C-statistic=0.84, CI: 0.80-0.88), compared to models (n=9) that incorporated a combination of drugs alongside insulin (C-statistic= 0.79, CI:0.74-0.84), as well as models (n=3) not including insulin (C-statistic =0.70, CI: 0.64-0.75). Limitations include the high risk of bias and significant heterogeneity in reviewed studies. CONCLUSION: This is the first review assessing drug exposure handling in DR prediction models. Drug exposure was primarily modelled as a categorical variable, with insulin associated with improved model performance. However, due to suboptimal drug handling, associations between other drugs and model performance may have been overlooked. This review proposes the following for future DR prediction models: 1) evaluation of drug exposure as a variable, 2) use of time-varying methodologies, and 3) consideration of drug regimen details. Improving drug exposure handling could potentially unveil novel variables capable of significantly enhancing the predictive capability of prediction models.

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Year 2024
Giornale Sleep medicine
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INTRODUCTION: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder of sleep/wake regulation characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by a wide range of sensory symptoms, mainly affecting the lower limbs. An increased incidence of RLS has been demonstrated in Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been associated with severe motor and non-motor manifestations. We aimed to provide a reliable estimate of RLS prevalence and the clinical features associated with its occurrence in PD (PD-RLS). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search up to January 2024 using PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases. Articles were included if they provided data on PD patients with or without RLS, and these proportions were used to estimate the prevalence of PD-RLS. Clinical profile associated with PD-RLS was explored by comparing the clinical characteristics of PD patients with and without RLS. RESULTS: Forty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled RLS prevalence was 20 % of a total sample of 6990 PD patients and was associated with female sex, mixed motor phenotype, worse motor disturbances and functional disability, and a wide range of non-motor symptoms such as sleep disorders, cognitive and autonomic dysfunctions, and more severe neuropsychiatric manifestations. Sensitivity analyses indicated significant associations of PD-RLS with variables related to dopaminergic therapy. No association was found with serum ferritin, serum iron and hemoglobin levels. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PD-RLS exceeds that reported in the general population, suggesting the existence of a relationship between the two disorders. Dopaminergic treatment seems to play an ambivalent role relieving, worsening or "mimicking" RLS manifestations. However, the clinical profile of PD-RLS patients, characterized by a greater severity of non-motor symptoms, also suggests that neurotransmitter systems other than the dopaminergic one are involved in PD-RLS etiology.

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Year 2024
Giornale Food chemistry
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Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production. Milk and dairy products are important sources of iodine in many countries. We aimed to review systematically the variation in milk‑iodine concentration between countries, seasons and farming practice. We searched online food composition tables and published literature for data since 2006. Milk‑iodine concentration was available for 34 countries (from 66 sources) and ranged from 5.5 to 49.9 μg/100 g (median 17.3 μg/100 g). Meta-analyses identified that iodine concentration is significantly higher in: (i) winter than summer milk (mean difference 5.97 μg/100 g; p = 0.001), and (ii) in conventional than in organic milk (mean difference 6.00 μg/100 g; p < 0.0001). Sub-group analysis showed that the difference between organic and conventional milk was only significant in summer (p = 0.0003). The seasonal variation in milk‑iodine concentration may affect iodine intake and status so should be considered in dietary surveys, and when assessing population iodine status.

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Year 2024
Autori Aydin S , Yaşlı M , Yildiz Ş , Urman B - More
Giornale Reproductive biomedicine online
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Reproductive failure due to age, genetics and disease necessitates innovative solutions. While reproductive tissue transplantation has advanced, ongoing research seeks superior approaches. Biomaterials, bioengineering and additive manufacturing, such as three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, are harnessed to restore reproductive function. 3D bioprinting uses materials, cells and growth factors to mimic natural tissues, proving popular for tissue engineering, notably in complex scaffold creation with cell distribution. The versatility which is brought to reproductive medicine by 3D bioprinting allows more accurate and on-site applicability to various problems that are encountered in the field. However, in the literature, there is a lack of studies encompassing the valuable applications of 3D bioprinting in reproductive medicine. This systematic review aims to improve understanding, and focuses on applications in several branches of reproductive medicine. Advancements span the restoration of ovarian function, endometrial regeneration, vaginal reconstruction, and male germ cell bioengineering. 3D bioprinting holds untapped potential in reproductive medicine.

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Year 2024
Autori Rosario AA , Gau A , Munsterman E , Ancheta AJ - More
Giornale Nursing outlook
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BACKGROUND: The recent push to "decolonize nursing" has become a critical movement to address institutional racism, but the term has circulated through nursing circles enough to risk becoming a buzzword. PURPOSE: This article clarifies "decolonizing nursing" by addressing the following questions: (a) How has "decolonizing nursing" been discussed in nursing research? (b) What specific projects have been implemented to decolonize nursing? (c) How has decolonizing nursing been related to health equity? METHODS: We conducted a scoping review and searched CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases. A total of N = 56 records were included. DISCUSSION: "Decolonization" has referred to a range of ideas related to resisting Western ideals, legitimizing Indigenous knowledge, and repatriating land and territory especially to Indigenous and dispossessed communities. Few empirical studies have examined the relationship between decolonization or colonialism and specific health outcomes. CONCLUSION: Decolonization differs from other social justice initiatives. To clarify what decolonizing nursing means, researchers can engage with historical, interdisciplinary, and community-based participatory research. In turn, nursing research will understand colonialism's historical context, provide evidence that supports policies that protect Indigenous territory, and design clinical interventions that promote health equity for dispossessed populations.

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