Smart Waste Management (SWM) discusses the waste management process for different types of waste while introducing an intelligent approach to controlling the amount of waste. This paper introduces SWM4.0, which applies Industry4.0 (I4.0) technologies in various related events. First, the paper presents a systematic literature review on the role of I4.0 technologies in SWM activities regarding waste types, waste management processes, and 5R strategies. Then, existing solutions supporting SWM4.0 are extracted to develop a framework for exploring the use of I4.0 technologies. This framework includes sharing the four main pillars that contribute to the success of SWM4.0, namely smart people, smart cities, smart enterprises, and smart factories. Furthermore, this review suggests the possibility of unifying and extending existing solutions and identifying the necessary links and interfaces for researchers. For managerial implications, the framework identifies future strategies to fulfill specific SWM tasks and to foster new technological solutions for future research.
BACKGROUND: Some observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have reported an association between calcium supplementation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses on the topic, based on data from RCTs and observational studies, have contradictory findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the difference in associated risks of calcium supplementation with cardiovascular disease and stroke in RCTs. METHODS: Relevant studies published from database inception to 6 August 2021 were sourced from PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Any RCTs focusing on the relationship between calcium supplementation and incidence of cardiovascular disease or stroke were included. Articles were screened independently by two authors, according to the PICO criteria, with disagreements resolved by a third author. RESULTS: Twelve RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Calcium supplementation was not associated with myocardial infarction, total stroke, heart failure admission, and all-cause/cardiovascular mortality. Subgroup analysis focusing on calcium monotherapy/calcium co-therapy with vitamin D, female sex, follow-up duration, and geographical region did not affect the findings. CONCLUSION: Calcium supplementation was not associated with myocardial infarction, total stroke, heart failure admission, and cardiovascular/all-cause mortality. Further studies are required to examine and understand these associations.
BACKGROUND: Our previous strain-specific systematic review (SR) showed that Lactobacillus reuteri (LR) DSM 17938 reduces necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), late onset sepsis (LOS), and time to full feeds (TFF) in preterm infants. Considering progress in the field over last six years, we aimed to update our SR. METHODS: SR of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMCARE, Cochrane CENTRAL and grey literature databases were searched in June 2023. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: TFF, NEC ≥Stage II, LOS, and all-cause mortality. Meta-analysis was performed using random effects model. Certainty of Evidence (CoE) was summarized using GRADE guidelines. Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) was applied for the outcome of NEC in RCTs. RESULTS: Twelve RCTs (n=2284) and four non-RCTs (n=1616) were included. Of them, six RCTs and three non-RCTs were new. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed LR significantly reduced TFF [MD: -2.70 (95% CI: -4.90 to -1.31) days; p=0.0001), NEC ≥stage II [RR: 0.57 (95% CI: 0.37- 0.87); p=0.009, 8 RCTs) and LOS [RR: 0.72 (95% CI: 0.54-0.97); p=0.03). There was no significant reduction in mortality [RR: 0.76 (95% CI: 0.54-1.06); p=0.10). TSA showed diversity adjusted required information size (DARIS) as 3624 for NEC. Overall CoE: 'very low'. Meta-analysis of four non-RCTs showed LR significantly reduced NEC [OR: 0.34 (95% CI: 0.15-0.77; p=0.01) but not LOS. LR had no adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: Very low CoE suggests that LR DSM 17938 may reduce risk of NEC, LOS, and shorten TFF in preterm infants. Additional RCTs are required to increase sample size and CoE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Electrical stimulation as a mode of external enhancement factor in wound healing has been explored widely. It has proven to have multidimensional effects in wound healing including antibacterial, galvanotaxis, growth factor secretion, proliferation, transdifferentiation, angiogenesis, etc. Despite such vast exploration, this modality has not yet been established as an accepted method for treatment. This article reviews and analyzes the approaches of using electrical stimulation to modulate wound healing and discusses the incoherence in approaches towards reporting the effect of stimulation on the healing process. The analysis starts by discussing various processes adapted in in vitro, in vivo, and clinical practices. Later it is focused on in vitro approaches directed to various stages of wound healing. Based on the analysis, a protocol is put forward for reporting in vitro works in such a way that the outcomes of the experiment are replicable and scalable in other setups. This work proposes a ground of unification for all the in vitro approaches in a more sensible manner, which can be further explored for translating in vitro approaches to complex tissue stimulation to establish electrical stimulation as a controlled clinical method for modulating wound healing.
Aging is characterized by a gradual decline of the body's biological functions, which can lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidants neutralize ROS and maintain balance between oxidation and reduction. If ROS production exceeds the ability of antioxidant systems to neutralize, a damaging state of oxidative stress (OS) may exist. The reduced form of glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant antioxidant, and decline of GSH is considered a marker of OS. Our review summarizes the literature on GSH variations with age in healthy adults in brain (in vivo, ex vivo) and blood (plasma, serum), and reliability of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurement of GSH. A systematic PubMed search identified 35 studies. All in vivo MRS studies (N = 13) reported good to excellent reproducibility of GSH measures. In brain, 3 out of 4 MRS studies reported decreased GSH with age, measured in precuneus, cingulate, and occipital regions, while 1 study reported increased GSH with age in frontal and sensorimotor regions. In post-mortem brain, out of 3 studies, 2 reported decreased GSH with age in hippocampal and frontal regions, while 1 study reported increased GSH with age in a frontal region. Oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) was reported to be increased in caudate with age in 1 study, suggesting OS. Although findings in the brain lacked a clear consensus, the majority of studies suggested a decline of GSH with age. The low number of studies (particularly ex vivo) and potential regional differences may have contributed to variability in the findings in brain. In blood, in contrast, GSH levels predominately were reported to decrease with advancing age (except in the oldest-old, who may represent a select group of particularly successful agers), while GSSG findings lacked consensus. The larger number of studies assessing age-specific GSH level changes in blood (N = 16) allowed for more robust consensus across studies than in brain. Overall, the literature suggests that aging is associated with increased OS in brain and body, but the timing and regional distribution of changes in the brain require further study. The contribution of brain OS to brain aging, and the effect of interventions to raise brain GSH levels on decline of brain function, remain understudied. Given that reliable tools to measure brain GSH exist, we hope this paper will serve as a catalyst to stimulate more work in this field.
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of risk prediction models for cardiovascular (CV) events in hemodialysis (HD) patients, and provide a reference for the application and optimization of related prediction models. METHODS: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched from inception to 1 February 2023. Two authors independently conducted the literature search, selection, and screening. The Prediction model Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST) was applied to evaluate the risk of bias and applicability of the included literature. RESULTS: A total of nine studies containing 12 models were included, with performance measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) lying between 0.70 and 0.88. Age, diabetes mellitus (DM), C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin (ALB) were the most commonly identified predictors of CV events in HD patients. While the included models demonstrated good applicability, there were still certain risks of bias, primarily related to inadequate handling of missing data and transformation of continuous variables, as well as a lack of model performance validation. CONCLUSION: The included models showed good overall predictive performance and can assist healthcare professionals in the early identification of high-risk individuals for CV events in HD patients. In the future, the modeling methods should be improved, or the existing models should undergo external validation to provide better guidance for clinical practice.
BACKGROUND: Genetic literacy refers to an individual's ability to understand the basics of genetic concepts and apply them to health-related decisions. The level of genetic literacy influences attitude towards genetic testing and is, in turn, influenced by several other factors. Clinicians must be aware of the genetic literacy of their patients and their caregivers before advising genetic testing and/or undertaking pre and post-test counseling. METHOD: A systematic review of literature in PubMed was carried out using keywords "Genetic testing", "Genetic counseling", "Knowledge", "Attitude", "Parkinson's disease" in various combinations. RESULTS: Seven eligible studies with a total of 1837 individuals (patients with PD-1355 and patient caregivers-482) were identified. More than half the participants were well-versed in basic concepts of genetics (57.8%) and risks of inheriting PD (60.5%) while less than 10% were aware regarding the contribution of specific genes (e.g. LRRK2). Interest in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and facilitating PD research were central themes for positive attitude while apprehensions revolving around impact on employment and insurance and non-benefit were associated with negative attitudes. Possible associations included greater knowledge scores with positive attitudes towards genetic testing and older age for negative attitude towards testing. Insufficient data on attitudes toward prenatal testing, presymptomatic testing and clinicians' attitude toward testing was identified. CONCLUSION: Patients with PD and their caregivers are aware of the role of genetics in the etiopathogenesis of their disease, which contributes to their positive attitude towards testing. Further studies exploring negative attitudes towards testing will help overcome the hurdles in genetic testing and counseling in this cohort of patients.
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis in carotid arteries can remain clinically undetected in its early development until an acute cerebrovascular event such as stroke emerges. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) circulating in blood have emerged as potential diagnostic biomarkers, but their performance in detecting subclinical carotid atherosclerosis has yet to be systematically researched. AIM: To investigate the diagnostic performance of circulating miRNAs in detecting subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS: We systematically searched five electronic databases from inception to July 23, 2022. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was defined using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Diagnostic accuracy parameters and correlation coefficients were pooled. A gene network visualisation and enrichment bioinformatics analysis were additionally conducted to search for potential target genes and pathway regulations of the miRNAs. RESULTS: Fifteen studies (15 unique miRNAs) comprising 2542 subjects were identified. Circulating miRNAs had a pooled sensitivity of 85% (95% CI 80%-89%), specificity of 84% (95% CI 78%-88%), positive likelihood ratio of 5.19 (95% CI 3.97-6.80), negative likelihood ratio of 0.18 (95% CI 0.13-0.23), diagnostic odds ratio of 29.48 (95% CI 21.15-41.11), and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.93), with a strong correlation to CIMT (pooled coefficient 0.701; 95% CI 0.664-0.731). Bioinformatics analysis revealed a major role of the miRNAs, as shown by their relation with CCND1, KCTD15, SPARC, WWTR1, VEGFA genes, and multiple pathways involved in the pathogenesis of carotid atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Circulating miRNAs had excellent accuracy in detecting subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, suggesting their utilisation as novel diagnostic tools.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginkgo biloba L. is a well-known and highly regarded resource in Chinese traditional medicine due to its effectiveness and safety. Ginkgo Folium, the leaf of Ginkgo biloba L., contains biologically active constituents with diverse pharmacological activities. Recent studies have shown promising antitumor effects of the bioactive constituents found in Ginkgo Folium against various types of cancer cells, highlighting its potential as a natural source of antitumor agents. Further research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and optimize its therapeutic potential. AIM OF THE REVIEW: To provide a detailed understanding of the pharmacological activities of Ginkgo Folium and its potential therapeutic benefits for cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we conducted a thorough and systematic search of multiple online databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, using relevant keywords such as "Ginkgo Folium," "flavonoids," "terpenoids," "Ginkgo Folium extracts," and "antitumor" to cover a broad range of studies that could inform our review. Additionally, we followed a rigorous selection process to ensure that the studies included in our review met the predetermined inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The active constituents of Ginkgo Folium primarily consist of flavonoids and terpenoids, with quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide being the major compounds. These active constituents exert their antitumor effects through crucial biological events such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy, and inhibition of invasion and metastasis via modulating diverse signaling pathways. During the process of apoptosis, active constituents primarily exert their effects by modulating the caspase-8 mediated death receptor pathway and caspase-9 mediated mitochondrial pathway via regulating specific signaling pathways. Furthermore, by modulating multiple signaling pathways, active constituents effectively induce G1, G0/G1, G2, and G2/M phase arrest. Among these, the pathways associated with G2/M phase arrest are particularly extensive, with the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) being most involved. Moreover, active constituents primarily mediate autophagy by modulating certain inflammatory factors and stressors, facilitating the fusion stage between autophagosomes and lysosomes. Additionally, through the modulation of specific chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases, active constituents effectively inhibit the processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis, exerting a significant impact on cellular invasion and migration. Synergistic effects are observed among the active constituents, particularly quercetin and kaempferol. CONCLUSION: Active components derived from Ginkgo Folium demonstrate a comprehensive antitumor effect across various levels and pathways, presenting compelling evidence for their potential in new drug development. However, in order to facilitate their broad and adaptable clinical application, further extensive experimental investigations are required to thoroughly explore their efficacy, safety, and underlying mechanisms of action.
PURPOSE: The morphometry of the hepatic portal vein is of clinical importance, particularly in pre-operative assessments, surgical management, and diagnoses of liver conditions. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to characterize the morphometry of the normal portal vein in both pediatric and adult patients. METHODS: The study, conducted using the PRISMA guidelines and registered with PROSPERO, utilized the MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases up to May 2020, and updated to May 2023. All studies reporting extractable data on diameter, length, and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the main, left, and right portal veins (PV, LPV, RPV, respectively) were included. The AQUA Tool was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Data analysis included subgroup analyses based on geographical location, sex, age, and imaging modality. RESULTS: A total of 122 studies with 11,637 subjects were eligible for inclusion. Overall, the pooled mean diameter of the PV (PVD) was 10.09 mm (95% CI: 9.56-10.62). Significant differences in diameter were found between pediatric (6.60 mm; 95% CI: 5.38-7.82) and adult (10.72 mm; 95% CI: 10.25-11.19) subjects. Additionally, there was a significantly larger PVD measurement from computed tomography (CT) than other imaging modalities: CT, 13.28 mm (95% CI: 11.71-14.84); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 10.50 mm (95% CI: 9.35-11.66) and ultrasound (US), 9.81 mm (95% CI: 9.47-10.16). The mean diameters of the LPV and RPV were 8.27 mm (95% CI: 6.78-9.77) and 8.33 mm (95% CI: 6.70-9.95), respectively. Mean PV length in adults is 48.63 mm (95% CI: 35.63-61.64). Mean CSA of the PV was 1.09 cm2. CONCLUSIONS: The study obtained aim to improve the understanding of portal vein anatomy, especially with relevance to surgical interventions of the liver in both pediatric and adult patients. Measurements from ultrasound imaging closely approximates the generated pooled PVD mean for pediatric and adult patients. CT imaging, however, significantly exceeded the established 13 mm threshold for adults. For pediatric patients, a threshold of 8 mm is proposed as a diagnostic upper limit for a normal PVD. Although not significant, the PVD decreased from the portal confluence towards its bifurcation.