BACKGROUND: Students and workers have been subjected to increased levels of psychological distress due to the quarantine policy and containment measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. This scoping review aimed to present an overview of published evidence regarding formal and informal help-seeking intentions/behaviors for non-mental health-related issues as well as mental health-related issues among students and workers during the pandemic. METHODS: In June 2022, we searched MEDLINE, APA PsycNet, and CINAHL for articles reporting the state of help-seeking intentions/behaviors among students and workers during the pandemic. Peer-reviewed original articles published in English were selected. RESULTS: In total, 150 articles were identified, and 12 articles were selected for final analysis after removing articles that met the exclusion criteria. Three studies targeted university students, and nine targeted healthcare workers. Study settings were restricted to Western countries and China. Of the 12 studies, 11 were observational and predominantly cross-sectional studies. Two longitudinal studies using student samples suggested that university students became more reluctant to seek help from both formal and informal sources during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before, despite the increased need for support during the pandemic. Among healthcare workers, the proportions of those who sought help from formal sources in person were low (7-26%), even among those with mental health issues, despite the increase in the need for mental health services. One randomized controlled study reported that a brief video-based intervention increased treatment-seeking intentions among healthcare workers in the intervention group compared with the non-intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: The present review revealed that, although most studies included in the final analysis were cross-sectional, intentions/behaviors to seek help from both formal and informal sources decreased among university students, even those with mental health issues. Among healthcare workers, while the frequency of help-seeking from formal sources in person was low, a brief online intervention was suggested to be useful for promoting help-seeking from formal sources. During public health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, system and infrastructure development of online help-seeking services could potentially promote formal and informal help-seeking intentions/behaviors for diverse issues, including non-mental health-related issues, among university students and healthcare workers/providers.
INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread worldwide since December 2019, causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Several measures have taken place in many countries to avoid further spread of the virus and to manage infected people according to disease severity. Notably, telemedicine (TM) was successfully used to manage less severe patients. Our aim was to assess the impact and the edges of using TM in home-isolated or hospitalized patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection and its further application. METHODS: We performed a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, focusing on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English and available on PubMed database. Full texts were blindly reviewed and then assessed according to PICO model. RESULTS: Our research identified a total of 1,959 records, of which 24 were potentially eligible through the articles full-text review. Six papers were included for data extraction and 18 articles were excluded: 10 articles were not RCTs and 8 articles did not involve SARS-CoV-2 patients. The TM application showed an improvement in psychological stress, mental disorders, and a significant reduction of general stress in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The effectiveness of using TM in rehabilitative respiratory programs has been also reported. Furthermore, the benefits of TM application in tailored monitoring of vital parameters in home-isolated patients helped clinicians to early identify a deterioration of clinical conditions. CONCLUSION: The use of TM during COVID-19 pandemic represented a novel, intriguing, versatile, and useful tool to support clinical practice. This evidence suggests considering TM in a wider range of clinical applications.
BACKGROUND: Melatonin might be beneficial to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in terms of both prevention and treatment. We investigated how melatonin affected various clinical and laboratory results in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases were utilized for searching eligible articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria up to December 2022. We used random effect model in case of significant heterogeneity; in other cases, a fixed model was applied. RevMan was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: We included 11 studies in our review. Clinical improvement rate was found to be statistically significantly higher in patients taking melatonin than in the control group (OR: 5.09; 95% CI: 2.60-9.96, p < 0.001). Patients receiving melatonin showed a non-significant difference in mortality rate compared to the control group (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.07-1.81, p = 0.22). However, in the randomized controlled trials subgroup, melatonin-treated patients showed significantly lower mortality than did the controls (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.08-0.38, p < 0.001). CRP level was statistically significantly lower due to melatonin treatment (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -9.85; 95% CI: -18.54 to -1.16, p = 0.03). Length of hospital stay was statistically significantly shorter in patients taking melatonin compared to controls (WMD = -4.05; 95% CI: -5.39 to -2.7, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Melatonin was found to have substantial effects on COVID-19 patients when used as adjuvant therapy, enhancing clinical improvement and decreasing time to recovery with a shorter length of hospital stay and a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation.
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant impacts on most aspects of life, including physical and psychological wellbeing. Neck pain is a very common musculoskeletal complaint worldwide, and one that has been impacted by COVID-19. Such impacts have been studied by a few researchers, but not without inconstancies. Moreover, understanding those impacts in relation to rehabilitation is not fully comprehended. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically examine the impacts of COVID-19 on neck pain intensity and onset pre and post the pandemic. METHODS: This study was developed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Keywords used were "COVID-19" AND "Neck Pain". Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Checklist for prevalence studies. RESULTS: A total of five studies were included with an overall sample size of 2618 participants. Three studies were at moderate risk and two were at high risk of bias. Results from three studies reported an increase in neck pain intensity and onset, while the other two did not report an increase. CONCLUSION: The impact of COVID-19 on neck pain is unclear. The inconsistency in results sheds the light on the importance of having future research (including longitudinal studies) to help guide us towards understanding the real impacts of COVID-19 on neck pain.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-derived myocardial flow reserve (MFR) has been shown to have a role in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the body of literature and synthesize the evidence on the prognostic role of PET-derived MFR in patients with known or suspected CAD. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of the Medline database from its inception to August 2023, in humans, in any language, was conducted for clinical studies examining the prognostic value of PET imaging in patients of any age, sex, and CAD status. Systematic screening and data extraction of the identified studies were followed by quantitative meta-analysis of PET-MFR's role in predicting adverse clinical events using random effect model. Studies were appraised using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa tool. RESULTS: A total of 21 studies assessing the prognostic role of PET derived MFR in 46,815 patients with known and/or suspected CAD were included (mean (SD) age 66 (4) years, 48% women). The mean follow-up duration was 36 months (range 10-96). Cardiovascular risk factors were prevalent (73% hypertension, 35% diabetes and 67% dyslipidemia). The definition of the composite outcome varied between studies, with various combinations of mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization, and coronary revascularization. Pooled impaired MFR was significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes (RR = 2.94, 95% CI 2.42-3.56, p < 0.001). Results were similar in a subgroup of patients with suspected CAD. CONCLUSIONS: The available body of evidence shows that impaired PET-derived MFR measured using different tracers and PET systems is strongly associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Limitations of this review include observational nature of studies, marked heterogeneity in patient populations, inconsistency in thresholds to define abnormal MFR, and differing components for the composite outcome.
We aim to collect the evidence of efficacy of Gentle Guman Touch (GHT) and Yakson Touch in preterm neonates as pain relief, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and urine cortisol level. We made our search through PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane by the mid of March 2023. Randomized control trials (RCTs) were included, and the Cochrane risk of bias tool was utilized to assess their quality. Using Review Manager software, a meta-analysis was conducted. We computed the mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the continuous data. During the examination, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) was significantly reduced in the touch group compared to the control group (MD = -3.40, 95% CI [-4.15 to -2.64], P-value= 0.00001). After the examination, the NIPS score was also reduced by both Yakson touch and GHT compared to the control (MD = -2.14, 95% CI [-3.42 to -0.85], P-value <0.00001). Yakson touch and GHT are non-pharmacological, easy, and safe methods that can be used for painful interventions to reduce the pain experience of preterm infants from variable interventions. Both methods improved infant sleep and behavior. Preterm infants' heart rates and oxygen saturation were unaffected by Yakson touch or GHT.
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure worldwide. Systematic search of Pubmed, Cochrane, and Embase was performed in order to find all the articles reporting 10+ years of LSG results. Eleven studies including 1020 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall weighted mean %TWL was 24.4% (17-36.9%), and remission rates from TD2M to HTN were 45.6% (0-94.7%) and 41.4% (0-78.4%), respectively. De novo GERD had an overall prevalence of 32.3% (21.4-58.4%), and five cases (0.5%) of Barrett's disease were reported. Revisional surgery was required for 19.2% (1-49.5%) of patients, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass being the most common secondary procedure.
Platynosomum sp. is a parasite that infects the liver and biliary tract of domestic and wild cats, causing platynosomiasis. A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed to determine the global prevalence and distribution of Platynosomum sp. based on epidemiological studies and case reports. A total of 73 articles met the inclusion criteria, including 46 studies of an epidemiological nature and 27 case report articles, comprising 35 affected animals. Meta-analysis of epidemiological studies revealed an overall prevalence of 17.8%, with high heterogeneity. Central America had the highest prevalence at 64.1%, followed by South America at 15.1%. Necropsy was the primary diagnostic method, followed by morphological detection of eggs in faeces at 29.3% and 12.5%, respectively. The analysis of case reports highlighted a greater number in South America and confirmed the presence of the parasite in countries where no epidemiological studies were obtained. The most infected animals were those that met the criteria of being mixed-breed, over 4 years old, and having unrestricted outdoor access, but no gender predilection was observed. General comorbidities were the most observed, followed by icterus. In addition, pathological changes were observed in the necropsied animals of the case reports, and the presence of thickening of the ducts and gallbladder was mainly identified, followed by fibrosis and hyperplasia, linked to the presence of an adult parasite. In conclusion, this systematic review with meta-analysis revealed a significant prevalence of Platynosomum sp. at a global level, mainly in the Americas, and that comprehensive studies are necessary for a more reliable prevalence, considering that this is a parasite of great importance for feline medicine.
PURPOSE: Peroneus tertius (PT) or Fibularis tertius, a muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg is very distinctive to the Homo sapiens. This is because of the evolutionary acquisition of bipedal gait along with the eversion of the foot, which are unique to humans. It is considered as the fifth tendon of the extensor digitorum longus. Variations in the attachments of PT can cause stress fractures like the Jones fracture. PT has been extensively used in tendoplasty, tendon transfer and resection of the foot. The study aims to transpose the knowledge in variations of the morphology of PT from bench to bedside. METHODS: Routine dissection of a 64-year-old male cadaver revealed bilateral variations in the insertion of PT. This was documented photographically. The findings prompted a systematic literature review on the morphological variations of PT. An exhaustive search was undertaken through PubMed and Google Scholar databases to identify the published literature related to variations in the morphology of PT. Related anatomical studies of the variations in peroneus tertius were identified and a review of the literature was performed. RESULTS: Variations in the insertion of PT were observed bilaterally in the cadaver dissected by us. Statistical analysis revealed the absence of PT in 7.03% of lower limbs. 10% of studies showed accessory and duplicated PT each. Out of 20 articles reviewed, 51 lower limbs showed variation in origin, 230 lower limbs showed variations in insertion and 161 lower limbs showed other variations. CONCLUSION: PT muscle flap and tendon grafts are used in correcting the laxity of the ankle joint and foot drop. Absence of PT plays a crucial role in altering the mechanics of stress fractures of the 5th metatarsal. Thus, knowledge of the morphology of PT is crucial for plastic surgeons and orthopedic surgeons.
AIMS: This study aimed to identify and evaluate tools and resources used to support the implementation of workplace healthy food and drink policies, primarily in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: A scoping grey literature review included searches of government agencies and non-governmental organisations' websites in six English-speaking countries, public health nutrition intervention databases and Google search engine queries. Paper-based and digital tools were included if they were written in English, referred to within a policy or on a policy's website, and primarily targeting supply-side stakeholders. Tools were evaluated on two domains: 'Features' (summarised descriptively) and 'Usability and Quality' (with inter-rater reliability scores calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient). RESULTS: Twenty paper-based tools were identified relating to Australian (n = 14) and New Zealand (n = 6) policies, and a further six digital tools were identified from Australia (n = 3) and Canada (n = 3). Target audiences included workplace managers, food providers and suppliers. The paper-based tools focused on general implementation guidance. In contrast, digital tools tended to support specific elements of policy implementation. 'Usability and Quality' scores ranged from 2.9 to 4.5 (out of 5.0) for paper-based tools, and 3.9 to 4.2 for digital tools, with a moderate agreement between reviewer scores (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.523, p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: A range of tools have been developed to support the implementation of workplace healthy food and drink policies. Understanding the strengths and limitations of current tools will assist in developing improved aids to support policy implementation.