Year 2024
Giornale Nurse education in practice
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AIM: To examine the current literature on educational strategies and interventions developed with the objective of teaching or enhancing communication skills of student midwives during their pre-registration education programmes. DESIGN: A scoping review based on the Joanna Briggs Institute framework was conducted using predefined criteria and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) Checklist. METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted using various databases (Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care Database (MIDIRS), Web of Science and Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC)) in October 2023. RESULTS: A total of 120 titles and abstracts were screened. A final number of eight articles were subjected to quality appraisal and included in the scoping review. Five themes were identified which describe educational strategies and interventions including: simulation-based training, the use of role-play, pedagogical approaches, theory-based information workshops and debrief and reflection. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights a gap in research focusing on the importance of communication skills training for student midwives throughout midwifery education. Despite the limited numbers of studies, different interventions and educational strategies have been recognized for enhancing these skills. To equip midwives with strong communication skills, a combination of interventions is recommended, including communication-focused workshops tailored for midwifery education and debriefing and student reflection sessions specifically designed to enhanced communication skills. REGISTRATION NUMBER: to be included in abstract after acceptance.

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Year 2024
Autori World Health Organization - More
Giornale WHO IRIS
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Year 2022
Registry of Trials EU Clinical Trials Register
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Year 2024
Pre-print SSRN
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Aim:The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its homolog, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE),are involved in COVID-19 physiopathology. Alterations in the enzymatic structure, expression, and/or activity may influence the risk of infection and severity of disease. For this reason, we aimed to identify different allelic forms of ACE2 G8790A and ACEI/D polymorphisms in a Brazilian cohort and evaluate theirimpact on ACE and ACE2 activities and their association with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity.Main methods:A total of549 COVID-negative and 270 COVID-positive participants from Ipaussu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were recruited. ACE2 and ACE activities were measured by fluorogenic assays using Mca-APK(Dnp) as the substrate for ACE2 and Z-Phe-His-Leu-OH (Z-FHL) and Hippuryl-His-Leu-OH (h-HL) as substrates for ACE. Genomic DNA was extracted from EDTA-peripheral blood, and the regions of the genes containing ACE2 G8790A and ACE I/D polymorphisms were amplified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time PCR, respectively.Key findings:The G allele of ACE2 G8790A polymorphism and D allele of ACE I/D polymorphism are associated with upregulation of RAS, characterized by increased ACE and ACE2 activities. ACE activity ratio (Z-FHL/h-HL), an inflammatory marker, is increased in women with GG genotype and COVID-positive diagnosis.Significance:The G or GG and DD genotypes are associated with overactivity of RAS, increased ACE’s N-domain activity, and upregulation of soluble ACE2,which may indicate depletion of their local effects, all features related to a pro-inflammatory state, which supports the findings of these genotypes being related to more severe cases of COVID-19.

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Year 2024
Autori Chen W , Huang J , Xiao J , Xu Q , Liu W , He X - More
Giornale Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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BACKGROUND: Bile acids can stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and be mostly reabsorbed in the ileum. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether ileum excision could reverse the glucose improvement after biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS). SETTING: Peking Union Medical College Hospital. METHODS: Thirty diabetic rats were randomly divided into the BPD/DS group, BPD/DS plus ileectomy (BDI) group, and control group. The fasting blood glucose, bile acids, and glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) levels in plasma samples were analyzed. RESULTS: In postoperative week 20, the fasting blood glucose level in the BDI group was significantly higher than that in the BPD/DS group (11.5 ± 1.4 mmol/L versus 7.6 ± 1.0 mmol/L, P < .001), and the AUCOGTT value was also significantly higher than that in the BPD/DS group (2186.1 ± 237.2 mmol/L·min versus 1551.2 ± 136.9 mmol/L·min, P < .001). The plasma level of bile acids in the BDI group was lower than that in the BPD/DS group (P = .012) and was not significantly different from that in the control group (P = .629). The plasma level of GLP-1 in the BDI group was lower than that in the BPD/DS group (P = .009) and was not significantly different from that in the control group (P = .530). Moreover, the intestinal TGR5 expression in the BDI group was significantly lower than that in the BPD/DS group (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The results show that excision of the ileum can partially reverse the improvement in glucose metabolism after BPD/DS.

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Year 1994
Giornale Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
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The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic effects of spironolactone associated with a low-sodium diet (n = 14) or a low-sodium diet alone (n = 9) in patients with compensated cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Spironolactone significantly reduced the plasma volume. This effect was associated with a significant reduction in the hepatic venous pressure gradient, from 17.6 +/- 3.6 mm Hg to 15.3 +/- 3.5 mm Hg (-13% +/- 13%; p < 0.01). Azygos blood flow (-20% +/- 20%), cardiac output (-16.2% +/- 10.5%) and mean arterial pressure (-9% +/- 9%) also decreased significantly. However, there were no significant changes in hepatic blood flow. Patients receiving low-sodium diet alone experienced a mild but significant reduction in hepatic venous pressure gradient (-6.3% +/- 6%) and in mean arterial pressure (-4% +/- 5%). There were no significant changes in cardiac output and in hepatic or azygos blood flows. This study indicates that low-sodium diet plus administration of spironolactone reduces portal pressure and azygos blood flow in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Low-sodium diet alone only produces mild effects that are likely to be clinically irrelevant.

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Year 2004
Giornale Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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Three different interventions to control Triatoma dimidiata in the State of Veracruz were implemented: X-1 = whole dwelling spraying, X-2 = middle wall spraying, X-3 = household cleaning. Cyfluthrin was sprayed 3 times with 8 month intervals. After each spraying, insects were collected and sent to the laboratory to be recorded and to determine genus and species of the adult triatomine bugs, and nymphs were counted. Trypanosoma cruzi presence was determined. With X-1, the infestation, colonization, and natural infection indexes were reduced to 0% in the 3 localities, with respect to t0. With X-2, the infestation index was reduced to 10% at t3 in 3 localities; the colonization index was reduced to 0% in only 1 locality at t3, and the natural infection index was reduced to 0% at t3. With X-3 the 3 indexes were not effectively reduced but they decreased with respect to the baseline study. Insecticide application to the whole dwelling is a more efficient intervention than its application to only the lower half of the walls and to the cleaning of houses.

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Year 1999
Giornale Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health
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This study assessed public acceptance for two new vectorial control techniques for Chagas' disease: insecticidal paint and fumigant canisters. The study compared the two with traditional fenitrothion insecticide spraying. An experimental field study was performed in an endemic area of central Honduras from August to November 1992, a year after the initial application of the treatments. The objectives of the study were to determine the acceptability of the tools on the part of the population whose homes were treated, and on the part of the personnel applying the treatments. The sample size was drawn up according to a uniform protocol applied in six Latin American countries. For this study a total of 651 persons were surveyed in 15 rural communities. Along with the surveys, focus groups were used to collect information to learn the reasons for accepting or rejecting particular treatments. The survey was done with heads of households. Focus groups were done with heads of households and also with the field operators who applied the treatments. The research showed that insecticidal paint had a low level of community acceptance (28.8%). Field operators strongly disliked the paint because of problems with its transport, application, unpleasant smell, and very low effectiveness against triatomines and pest insects. The traditional insecticide was more acceptable to the community (93.9%) and to the field operators, especially for its strong effect against the triatomines and pest insects. The results showed that in order to increase the public acceptance for insecticidal paint, it would be necessary to make the paint easier to transport and apply and to increase its effectiveness. Because of their very low effectiveness, fumigant canisters did not represent an acceptable alternative for triatomine vector control. A public educational effort should be a component of any new control method developed.

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Year 1997
Autori Oliveira Filho AM - More
Giornale Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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The field results of new tools for triatomine control developed under the sponsorship of WHO/TDR are reported: a) A slow-release "paint" containing malathion; b) fumigant cans containing cypermethrin and DDVP, and c) sensor boxes for the detection of triatomine infestations. Field assays were performed in Chile, Honduras and Paraguay against Triatoma infestans, T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus, accordingly to a standard protocol designed by a WHO experts committee. Preliminary 6 months post-treatment results for the three countries show an efficient control when insecticide paints were used indoors and in the peridomicilium, keeping reinfestation near zero. The final results presented for Chile two years post-treatment confirmed the superiority of the slow-release "paints". Sensor boxes were less effective than man/hour captures in the detection of infested houses.

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Year 1981
Giornale Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization
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