GiornaleBritish journal of anaesthesia
BACKGROUND: Neonates and infants have a higher perioperative risk of cardiac arrest and mortality than adults. The Human Development Index (HDI) ranges from 0 to 1, representing the lowest and highest levels of development, respectively. The relation between anaesthesia safety and country HDI has been described previously. We examined the relationship among the anaesthesia-related cardiac arrest rate (ARCAR), country HDI, and time in a mixed paediatric patient population.
METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to July 2022 for studies reporting 24-h postoperative ARCARs in children. ARCARs (per 10,000 anaesthetic procedures) were analysed in low-HDI (HDI<0.8) vs high-HDI countries (HDI≥0.8) and over time (pre-2001 vs 2001-22). The magnitude of these associations was studied using systematic review methods with meta-regression analysis and meta-analysis.
RESULTS: We included 38 studies with 5,493,489 anaesthetic procedures and 1001 anaesthesia-related cardiac arrests. ARCARs were inversely correlated with country HDI (P<0.0001) but were not correlated with time (P=0.82). ARCARs did not change between the periods in either high-HDI or low-HDI countries (P=0.71 and P=0.62, respectively), but were higher in low-HDI countries than in high-HDI countries (9.6 vs 2.0; P<0.0001) in 2001-22. ARCARs were higher in children aged <1 yr than in those ≥1 yr in high-HDI (10.69 vs 1.48; odds ratio [OR] 8.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.96-10.81; P<0.0001) and low-HDI countries (36.02 vs 2.86; OR 7.32, 95% CI 3.48-15.39; P<0.0001) in 2001-22.
CONCLUSIONS: The high and alarming ARCARs among children younger than 1 yr of age in high-HDI and low-HDI countries, respectively, reflect an ongoing challenge for anaesthesiologists.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW PROTOCOL: PROSPERO CRD42021229919.
Epistemonikos ID: bfc4719134e84b86ce5f21efc8fd73a7fbbfa069
First added on: Sep 25, 2023