JournalArchives of public health = Archives belges de santé publique
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence is widespread problem. Adherence is a crucial point for the success and the safe use of therapies. The objective of this overview (review of reviews) was to identify factors that influence adherence in chronic physical conditions.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in Medline and Embase (1990 to July 2013). Publications were screened according to predefined inclusion criteria. The study quality was assessed using AMSTAR. Both process steps were carried out independently by two reviewers. Relevant data on study characteristics and results were extracted in piloted standardized tables by one reviewer and checked by a second. Data were synthesized using a standardized quantitative approach by two reviewers.
RESULTS: Seven systematic reviews were included. Higher education and employment seem to have a positive effect on adherence. Ethnic minorities seem to be less adherent. Co-payments and higher medication cost seems to have negative effect on adherence. In contrast financial status/income and marital status seem to have no influence on adherence. The effect of therapy related factors was mostly unclear or had no effect. Only the number of different medications in heart failure patients showed the tendency of an effect. Indicators of regime complexity showed consistently a negative effect direction. Duration of disease seems to have no effect on adherence. There is the tendency that higher or middle age is associated with higher adherence. But in more than half of the reviews the effect was unclear. There is no clear effect of physical as well as mental comorbidity. Only one review showed the tendency of an effect for mental comorbidity. Also for gender the effect is not clear because the effect direction was heterogenic between and within the systematic reviews.
CONCLUSION: The presented overview shows factors than can potentially have influence on adherence. Only for a few factors the influence on adherence was consistent. Most factors showed heterogeneous results regarding statistical significance and/or effect direction. However, belonging to an ethnic minority, unemployment and cost for the patient for their medications showed consistently a negative effect on adherence which indicates that there is a social gradient.
Epistemonikos ID: 976fa535f1f881c59d72835ef2847a7fcc8c87ca
First added on: Jul 05, 2015