Pyoderma Gangrenosum After Breast Surgery: Diagnostic Pearls and Treatment Recommendations Based on a Systematic Literature Review.

Category Systematic review
JournalAnnals of plastic surgery
Year 2016
BACKGROUND: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare cutaneous disorder that poses a diagnostic challenge in the postoperative period. A systematic literature review was performed to determine distinguishing characteristics of PG in the setting of breast surgery that can facilitate timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for articles with cases of PG occurring after breast surgery. Forty-three relevant articles, including 49 case reports, were identified. RESULTS: PG manifested bilaterally in 30 of 34 cases (88%) in which bilateral surgery was performed. Abdominal wounds were present in 6 of 7 cases in which an abdominal donor site was used for breast reconstruction. Nipples were spared from wound involvement in 33 of 37 cases (89%) in which nipples were present after surgery. Presence of fever was noted in 27 cases (55%) and leukocytosis in 21 cases (43%). A total of 33 patients (67%) underwent wound debridement. Successful medical treatment most commonly involved steroids (41 cases, 84%) and cyclosporine (10 cases, 20%). CONCLUSIONS: Pertinent clinical features were identified that may aid in timely diagnosis and treatment of PG after breast surgery. Appearance of discrete wounds involving multiple surgical sites that surround but spare the nipples should raise suspicion for PG rather than infection or ischemia, even with concomitant fever and leukocytosis. Wound debridement should be minimized and skin grafting considered only after medical therapy is initiated. Cognizance of these features may enable prompt therapeutic intervention that minimizes morbidity and improves outcomes.
Epistemonikos ID: bc48656c43dcc7b32c50dcf45a2ec7e0a76f513d
First added on: Jul 10, 2014