Epistemonikos is a collaborative, multilingual database of research evidence and knowledge translation products that are usually referred as "evidence", according to the meaning given in Evidence-Based Health Care.
Epistemonikos was developed and is maintained by systematically searching PubMed and other databases for relevant systematic reviews and overviews of reviews. The search strategies that are used and the methods that are used to screen the search results and select records for inclusion are described here:
The aim of Epistemonikos is to provide rapid access to systematic reviews in health. A unique feature of Epistemonikos is that it links together systematic reviews, overviews of reviews and primary studies, thus providing a highly efficient method for searching. In addition, it includes translations of the titles and abstracts of included records to facilitate searching in different languages and it is continually updated by searching multiple sources of systematic reviews and overviews of reviews.
Epistemonikos is not a comprehensive database of health research. It only includes primary studies that have been included in a systematic review.
The greek word epistemonikos was used by Aristotles, meaning "What is worth knowing". This word was later translated into latin as scientia. We have picked this name because of several reasons.
Epistemonikos can easily be searched by typing terms into the search box and clicking on the “Search Epistemonikos” button.
Articles will appear at the top based on an algorithm developed by Epistemonikos team. For instance, articles including all terms entered in the query will appear first, and those including some terms will appear later. As you move away from results at the top of the search results, you will find less pertinent articles.
Additional articles can also be found by opening the abstract for relevant articles that are found and then clicking on one of the boxes on the right ("the dolmen") showing evidence related to the article. This will show
For more details and tips about searching see How it works
By clicking on “Advanced search” it is possible to restrict the search to specific fields (title, abstract, title and abstract, or author) and to use Boolean logic; i.e. choosing whether to search only for articles that include more than one term (using AND) or to search for articles that include any of two or more terms (using OR).
Epistemonikos was founded by Gabriel Rada and Daniel Pérez. Many institutions and individual people are involved in different aspects. The vast majority of them collaborate without an economic retribution.
The following people have contributed to the development of Epistemonikos:
The software development has been funded from multiple sources, such as internal funding from the Evidence-Based Health Care Program of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, and a grant from the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research (WHO). We also benefit of professional practice of students of software engineering from Universidad de Chile, and Biomedical informatics from DUOC UC. Some software has been commonly developed for PDQ-Evidence, a database to facilitate rapid access to the best available evidence for decisions about health systems, which is part of the SURE project (SURE-Supporting the Use of Research Evidence for Policy in African Health Systems- is a collaborative project that builds on and supports the Evidence-Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) in Africa and the Regional East African Community Health (REACH) Policy Initiative. SURE is funded by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme (Grant agreement no 222881), and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad).
The screening of information, classification, addition of relations, collection of metatada and translations is made by multiple collaborators from many institutions in different countries. We receive support through the academic recognition of medical and dentistry students by the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Universidad de Chile and Universidad de las Américas.
Epistemonikos.org is a collaborative nonprofit project. All of its content and features are available for free. See details in Terms and conditions
We consider the following types of studies for inclusion:
We consider systematic reviews for inclusion if they fulfill the criteria below or are classified as a systematic review in an overview or structured summary.
Systematic review criteria (DARE. Accessed 04/08/2011, 2011, at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/cms2web/AboutDare.asp)
>or =4 criteria (1-3 are mandatory)
Additionally, the review has to:
Other terms used by authors to describe a systematic review include: meta-analysis, rapid review, evidence-based review, overview and literature review. We classify any review that meets the above criteria as a systematic review, regardless of the term employed by the authors.
We consider overviews for inclusion if they fulfill the first criterion and one of criteria 2 to 4:
Other terms used by authors to describe overviews of systematic reviews include umbrella review, review of reviews, meta-reviews. We also consider evidence-based policy briefs (also called evidence briefs for policy) and guidelines, recommendations and consensus statements that meet the above criteria.
We include all studies included in systematic reviews and overviews that fulfill the following criteria:
Primary studies are included even though the source of the study might not be one of the sources screened by Epistemonikos.
We include systematic reviews and overviews of systematic reviews that that address an explicit question about health, including Treatment, diagnosis, prognosis, harm, and etiology
We exclude systematic reviews and overviews of systematic reviews that address methodological questions.
The following databases are searched (No language or publication status restriction is applied):
All records in CDSR, DARE, HTA database, SUPPORT Summaries, EPPI-Centre Evidence Library, 3ie Systematic Reviews and Policy Briefs, Campbell Library, Evidencias en Pediatría, SURE policy briefs, DFID, NICE public health guidelines and systematic reviews, Guide to Community Preventive Services, CADTH Rx for Change, McMaster Plus KT+ and McMaster Health Forum are considered as potentially eligible. Considering the great amount of records in PubMed or LILACS, we use search strategies with emphasis in specificity (Appendix 1)
All Primary studies included in systematic reviews that fulfill our inclusion criteria are entered into the database, independent of language or publication status.
If a list of included studies is not clearly provided by a systematic review or overview, we extract it from tables, annexes or from the text. If it is not possible to extract a list of included studies from the article (or there are doubts about this list, we contact the authors).
Systematic reviews are summaries of research evidence that address a clearly formulated question using systematic and explicit methods to
Systematic reviews of research evidence constitute a more appropriate source of research evidence for decision-making than the latest or most heavily publicized research study. Advantages of systematic reviews include
Overviews of reviews are summaries of systematic reviews that address broad questions using systematic methods to
Evidence-based policy briefs bring together ‘global’ research evidence (from systematic reviews) and local evidence to inform deliberations about health policies and programmes
Primary studies in Epistemonikos include all of the studies that met the inclusion criteria for the systematic reviews in Epistemonikos.
The only limitations for inclusion of primary studies in Epistemonikos are those that were established by the review authors. We have not excluded studies based on publication status, language of publication, year of publication or study design beyond whatever exclusion criteria were used by the review authors.
Structured summaries of overviews, systematic reviews and primary studies are prepared using standard headings and include critical appraisal and interpretation of the evidence that is summarised.
Typically these are prepared by someone other than the authors of the reports that are summarised and they contain more information than what is normally found in the abstracts written by the authors, which are also included in Epistemonikos.
The structured summaries that are included were not prepared specifically for Epistemonikos and are only available when they have been prepared by the authors of a report (e.g. executive summaries of evidence-based policy briefs) or by others (e.g. SUPPORT Summaries of systematic reviews for policymakers or DARE abstracts of systematic reviews).
The dolmen (as you would have noticed, we love funny words), is a 5-categories diagram based in the principles of Evidence-Based Health Care where we believe everything people calls evidence can be classified. It is the conceptual framework of epistemonikos and allows many of the functionalities of Epistemonikos.
Epistemonikos est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 non transposé